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The police and prosecution authority completed the investigation of 288 800 offences in 2017. This is Norway presents statistics from a variety of areas and seeks to give an overview of Norwegian society and its developments in recentyears.
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Retail sales down in September 30 Dqting 2018 The Dating site norwich volume index of retail sales decreased by 0. Fewer offences solved in the year of reform 2017 26 October 2018 Daating police and prosecution authority completed the investigation of 288 800 offences in 2017. Booklets This is Norway 2018 8 October 2018 This is Norway presents statistics from a variety of areas and seeks to give an overview of Norwegian society and its developments in recentyears.
There is always a danger that nuances are lost in translation. In some cases, when the selected Dating site norwich does not clarify the agent of the statement, the nationality Dating site norwich placed in brackets, e. As mentioned above, not Dating site norwich the responses could be placed into one of the two categories outlined in 3. However, since the scope in this article is limited to Norwegian perceptions, their views are not represented in the quotes below. When it comes to Norwegian readers, the total number of clearly supportive statements in the comment sections was less (275) than those defending Norwegian norms (367). Mobil Dating Oslo, the difference is not substantial enough to state that any of the List of norway dating sites can represent the Norwegian population. Whether supportive or defensive, their statements contain value-laden expressions which are highlighted in bold below. The quotes have been translated into English by the author and are presented in accordance with the procedures given in 3. There is a sense of embarrassment on behalf of fellow Norwegians, and a belief that people could, if they would, pull themselves together and show better manners. The quotes below have been chosen because they represent some of the commonly held views among those who defend the Norwegian communicative norms. Categorizing the expressions highlighted in 4. For the purpose of the discussion that follows, these (shown in bold) and terms with similar meaning are grouped together in table 1. Table 1: Summary of value-laden terms used in 4. However, Scandinavia dating app hiv Norwegian opinions about Americans provide an interesting view on their own values with regards to phatic talk, and those are further discussed below. Coupland defined phatic talk as something people use when there is minimal commitment to seriousness and factuality, but it still has a positive social value. There are examples when Norwegian students, who think they have been invited, surprise Americans by turning up on their doorstep (e. Those who criticize it, do not. References to the quotes in section Dating site norwich are given in brackets. According to the findings from those who defend Norwegian practices, it seems that phatic talk is not tied to being friendly (relational, sociable, polite) towards strangers as much as it might be to others. In view of this, it is easier to understand why these Norwegians portray people who use much phatic talk towards relative strangers as importunate (8) or tiresome (12). As mentioned in the introduction, studies on Norwegian communication practices are scarce in number, and, for the large part, anecdotal. However, the findings in this study support some of the anecdotes. Gray (2018:57) holds that in Norway one does not greet a stranger out of fear of threatening negative face by intruding on his or her personal space. This study finds that, to the Norwegian respondents who defend Norwegian norms, politeness is targeted towards the negative face of the interlocutor by not disturbing him with unnecessary talk, and when one does talk, to be meaningful, genuine, to the point, and quiet rather than to engage in small talk. Thus, not to use phatic talk does not indicate impoliteness, even if that is how people with other expectations judge it. Still, an interesting question is why the comments from these Norwegians express such a degree of skepticism towards using exchanges with a phatic interpretation. Why is using phatic talk, which aims to build positive social relationships (Coupland 1992, section two), described as empty, fake, excessive and loud. Coupland argued that when an utterance is interpreted as phatic, it is normally because the informational purpose is considered rather weak. He saw phatic talk as purposeless expressions because it had no propositional content. The Norwegians in question, however, seem to be of the opinion that without content, silence is a better option (28). Further, they seem to agree with the German view on phatic talk described by House (section two). According to her, Germans evaluate phatic talk similarly to a lie. There is another discussion in the data that has to do with what formulaic expressions serve best in a Norwegian setting. That is, it is rarely used towards strangers, but rather towards people one is already acquainted with in order to ask about their factual well-being (non-phatic interpretation). If Emily, in her story in the introduction, had greeted the unknown girl with any of these instead of a hand shake (which Norwegian youngsters never use towards each other, and which is perceived as relatively formal and committed even by adults), she might have caused less bewilderment to the girl. The findings in this study might lend the impression that Norwegians avoid phatic talk all together. However, one must bear in mind that these data only comment on small talk towards strangers, not towards ingroup members, i. It is possible that Americans and Norwegians are not so different when talking to ingroup members, and this is a possible topic for another study. In addition, this study needs to be supplemented by data uttered under non-defensive circumstances, and examine Norwegian small talk in a number of contexts (e. Another topic of interest is that young Norwegians might become more open to phatic talk. Miller (2018) argues that social relationships today are increasingly influenced by the social media which he terms a phatic culture because its main communicative purpose is to stay in touch rather than to be accurate and sincere. There are also significantly few in both groups who state that they use phatic talk towards strangers themselves. It indicates that phatic talk towards outgroup members is not very common in the Norwegian society. However, where they differ is on the expectation and evaluation of phatic talk. Some deem the lack of it impolite and wish for more, others do not. I wish to thank Klara Sjo (NHH) for preliminary analysis of some of the data used in this article and for many fruitful discussions on its content. Together we presented the ideas behind this article at the 21th Conference of the Nordic Network for Intercultural Communication in Reykjavik, Iceland in December 2018. Arntzen, Kristian (2018, April 7. Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer-mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10 (4), 419-438. Communicative behavior and conflict between African-American customers and Korean immigrant retailers in Los Angeles. Discourse and Society 11 (1), 86-108. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language in Society 21, 207-230. Research on Language and Social Interaction 36 (1), 1-6.